高爾夫專家的最佳表現是「自然發生」或是「刻意發生」?

國鑌(Kuo-Pin Wang) ; 冯洁(Jie Feng) ; 陳泰廷(Tai-Ting Chen)

臺灣運動心理學報 民 109,20 卷,3 期,P59 - 74

(DOI: 10.6497/BSEPT.202011_20(3).0004)

摘要

目的:過去在精準性運動上,專家被認為投入較少意識的注意力來控制身體動作,使動作執行趨近自動化,進而達到最佳表現。然而,考慮認知控制觀點,專家的最佳表現也需要認知控制歷程,才能使整體狀態達到/保持最佳表現。有鑑於此,本文試圖從複合動作計畫(multi-action plan; MAP)模型所提出專家會透過認知控制歷程來達到最佳運動表現的觀點,來提供專家在動作執行前和執行過程中的可能優異方式:表現前例行動作、注意力焦點、靜眼時刻、腦波特徵,並且解釋專家是如何透過認知控制歷程(投入更多認知資源的方式),來提高注意力資源的有效部屬,從而達到最佳運動表現。


Abstract

Based on previous studies in precision sports, experts' optimal performance has been associated with less consciousness and less effort to control over body movement during the automatic processes. However, according to the concept of cognitive control, the cognitive controlled processes are essential for achieving/ maintaining optimal performance in experts. In the light of this, the purposes of current review were to provide an overview of cognitive controlled processes in optimal performance underlying the multi-action plan (MAP) model. In addition, this review would introduce four optimal controlled processes: (a) pre-performance routine, (b) focus of attention, (c) quite-eye period, and (d) characteristic of EEG, to illustrate how experts adopt the cognitive controlled manners to efficiently allocate attention in achieving optimal performance.


關鍵詞

控制過程 ; 本體意識理論 ; 凝視 ; 神經效率假說 ; 流暢 ; EEG ; controlled processing ; somaesthetic awareness of theory ; quiet eye ; neural efficiency hypothesis ; flow ; EEG
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