台灣運動心理學會

Society for Sport and Exercise Psychology of Taiwan Society for Sport and Exercise Psychology of Taiwan

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藉自我控制工作難度與回饋提升自主性:動作表現與學習的檢驗

王重引(Chung-Yin Wang) ; 卓俊伶(Hank Junling Jwo)

臺灣運動心理學報 民 109,20 卷,3 期,P43 - 58


摘要

目的:旨在探討藉由自我控制情境中結合工作難度與回饋增進學習者之自主性,對動作表現與學習的效應。方法:40名參與者隨機分派至自我控制工作難度與回饋組(SCTFB)、自我控制工作難度與回饋對照組(SCTFBY)、自我控制工作難度組(SCT)、與自我控制工作難度對照組(SCTY)。實驗工作採取屬於自我配速且間斷性動作的高爾夫球推桿動作,在獲得期共進行60次試作與24小時後的保留測驗15次試作。結果:(一)SCT、SCTY與SCTFB組,練習次數與工作難度呈正相關;(二)僅有SCT組的動作表現與工作難度無顯著相關,而SCTFB組則顯著相關;與(三)SCT組與SCTFB組的動作學習效果皆顯著優於其對照組。結論:(一)自我控制無助於動作表現;(二)學習者在自我控制工作難度的情境中,工作難度會隨練習次數增加而增高;(三)在僅有自我控制工作難度的練習條件中,有助於動作學習;與(四)自我控制工作難度結合自我控制回饋有助於動作學習,但無附加效應。


Abstract

Purpose: We aimed to investigate the motor performance and learning effects of learners by enhancing autonomy via manipulating self-controlled task difficulty and feedback. Method: Forty participants were recruited and randomly assigned to four groups: self-controlled task difficulty and feedback (SCTFB), self-controlled task difficulty and yoked feedback (SCTFBY), self-controlled task difficulty (SCT), and yoked task difficulty (SCTY). Self-paced golf putting was used as experimental task. Participants of each group completed 60 trials during the acquisition phase and 15 trials without feedback at a retention test 24 hours after the acquisition phase. Results: The number of trials was positively related to task difficulty in SCT, SCTY, and SCTFB groups. A significant correlation between motor performance and task difficulty was reported only in the SCTFB. The SCTFB and SCT groups exhibited better learning effects than their yoked groups. Conclusion: Learners' motor performance is supposed to not be influenced by self-controlled learning contexts. During a self-controlled task difficulty situation, learners tend to select increased task difficulty as a function of practice trials. Motor learning is significantly facilitated by practice situations emphasizing self-controlled task difficulty. Finally, self-controlled task difficulty combined with self-controlled feedback can also benefit motor learning but no additive effect.

 


關鍵詞

自我調節學習 ; 挑戰點假說 ; 最適挑戰點 ; self-regulated learning ; challenge point hypothesis ; optimal challenge point

高爾夫專家的最佳表現是「自然發生」或是「刻意發生」?

國鑌(Kuo-Pin Wang) ; 冯洁(Jie Feng) ; 陳泰廷(Tai-Ting Chen)

臺灣運動心理學報 民 109,20 卷,3 期,P59 - 74


摘要

目的:過去在精準性運動上,專家被認為投入較少意識的注意力來控制身體動作,使動作執行趨近自動化,進而達到最佳表現。然而,考慮認知控制觀點,專家的最佳表現也需要認知控制歷程,才能使整體狀態達到/保持最佳表現。有鑑於此,本文試圖從複合動作計畫(multi-action plan; MAP)模型所提出專家會透過認知控制歷程來達到最佳運動表現的觀點,來提供專家在動作執行前和執行過程中的可能優異方式:表現前例行動作、注意力焦點、靜眼時刻、腦波特徵,並且解釋專家是如何透過認知控制歷程(投入更多認知資源的方式),來提高注意力資源的有效部屬,從而達到最佳運動表現。


Abstract

Based on previous studies in precision sports, experts' optimal performance has been associated with less consciousness and less effort to control over body movement during the automatic processes. However, according to the concept of cognitive control, the cognitive controlled processes are essential for achieving/ maintaining optimal performance in experts. In the light of this, the purposes of current review were to provide an overview of cognitive controlled processes in optimal performance underlying the multi-action plan (MAP) model. In addition, this review would introduce four optimal controlled processes: (a) pre-performance routine, (b) focus of attention, (c) quite-eye period, and (d) characteristic of EEG, to illustrate how experts adopt the cognitive controlled manners to efficiently allocate attention in achieving optimal performance.


關鍵詞

台灣運動心理學會

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